Using entr and Docker together for development
Lately I’ve found myself using Docker more and more. There’s something quite intoxicating about quick and easy creation of identical environments and the portability that comes from it. However, for me that often looks as vim in one tmux pane and a shell in another where I run something like
docker run --rm -it $(docker build -q .)
then look at the running application, change something, switch back into the shell window, kill Docker, run same command again. This is pretty tedious and there’s no reason it can’t be automated.
Up until recently the only way to achieve this I knew of was the inotify system and the incron service, which makes it easier to manage, especially if you’re familiar to setting up cron events. However, I’ve resently come across a tool called entr that helps achieve a similar result, but without depending on the inotify system, making it a cross-platform solution. In simple terms what entr does is it takes a list of filenames via standard input and a command to run as a command line argument. When it notices that any of the files has changed it runs the given command. For example, if you’re working on a Python project and you want to clear the screen (passing the
-c flag to entr makes it clear the screen) and re-run tests any time you make changes you might run it as
ag -l | entr -c python -m unittest
Here, ag is responsible for finding interesting files for entr to watch. You could use find, but ag pays attention to your .gitignore and has some other useful defaults. Note however that this wouldn’t detect and start tracking files created after starting the command. This can be changed by using the
-d flag of entr, which makes entr watch any directories containing the files it’s tracking and exit when it detects there are new files. This is intentional as it’s not the responsibility of entr to figure out which files it should track. The intended way to use this functionality is by wrapping both commands in a shell while-true loop, this way the file listing command is used to tell entr which of the new files it’s supposed to be tracking.
while sleep 1; do ag -l | entr -cd python -m unittest done
So can we use a similar setup to build and run a Docker container? Of course! If your container runs some tests and exits or does some other task that quickly finishes the only change you have to do is wrap the
docker command in an
sh -c or if you’re using an up to date version of entr you can use the
-s flag which effectively does the same (my distribution shipped version 3.4 and the
-s flag was not available).
while sleep 1; do ag -l | entr -cds 'docker run --rm $(docker build -q .)' done
Note that whether you’re using the
-s flag or the
sh -c technique the command now needs to be quoted to avoid premature shell variable expansion.
However, if you plan to run a development server this way the workflow is a little different - now entr should ask the Docker container to terminate, wait until that’s done and only then build and run a new container. Luckily, entr has the
-r flag that it send a signal to the proccess it started, wait for the process to terminate and only then start a new one. Though if you simply add the flag to the above command you’ll run into issues - the container will refuse to stop. It’s not an issue with entr or Docker, it’s simply an outcome of how the Linux kernel treats signals sent to processes. For regular processes if you don’t supply a signal handler you basically get a default one assigned and as a developer you don’t need to worry about correctly handling all the different signals your application might receive. Normally these default signal handlers do the right thing. However, the way the process with PID 1 is treated is a little different - the default handlers for the “please exit” signals don’t actually terminate the process. If you want your process to listen to these signals and exit you have to implement these handlers yourself. Of course, that’s a bit of a hassle, so since Docker version 1.13 it ships with a small and simple init manager (originally called tini) that can be used to wrap the application so that the init manager runs as PID 1 and executes your application as a different PID. It also knows how to handle different signals, making it behave as entr would expect. To run your application in a container using the init manager you can use
while sleep 1; do ag -l | entr -cdrs 'docker run --rm --init $(docker build -q .)' done
This allows you to have your application built and executed in a container whenever any changes are made without the developer having to restart it manually making it a very nice and slick development experience.
One issue I’ve noticed while using this with Python was that I wasn’t getting any output from the container and since it’s a development environment that’s often what you want. Turns out the issue in my case was simply that Python output is buffered by default. Normally you would run Docker with the
-it flag to have a pseudo-TTY attached and this debuffers the output, but this will interfere with entr. The solution is simply to pass the
-u flag to Python in the Dockerfile disabling the default buffering. The above command then works as a charm!
I hope you found this post useful. If you have any questions or comments - please let me know. I’d also like to thank the author of entr, Eric Radman, for his feedback and help with making this post as useful and accurate as possible.